What is Nonwoven and non-woven fabrics? We will try answering some of the most asked questions in the textile sector nowadays. Because of the Covid-19 pandemic, we have adapted to live with masks. There are various types of mask depending on the usage purposes. Especially 3 layers of surgical masks are one of the most common and popular of them. So majority of the mask manufacturers need raw materials which are non-woven fabrics. But it has come off big supply deficient because the non-woven fabrics manufacturers had been not ready that kind of big demand. As a result we started to hear a lot ”non-woven” fabric. Today we would like to share with you details, usage places, and types of non-woven fabrics.

Non-woven fabrics are apart from classical methods such as woven and knitted; it is a form of fabric production created by combining the fibers by various methods. Cheesecloth; These are textile surfaces obtained by fixing them by mechanical, chemical, and thermal methods, that is, by intertwining and bonding with each other. In other words, it is defined as engineering marvelous fabrics that offer economical solutions for an increasing variety of applications.


Non-woven surfaces (Nonwoven) have been used as quilts, dresses, and tents in various parts of the world for thousands of years. These surfaces obtained by felting wool fiber by various methods are the first examples of nonwoven textiles in the world. In order to evaluate the yarn debris in the 19th century, these residual fibers were intertwined with the needling method developed and various nonwoven surfaces were obtained. Non-woven surfaces that have many application areas today have an important place in our lives. For example wet wipes, cleaning cloths and floor coverings in carpet areas are produced thanks to non-woven surface applications.

In the production of nonwovens, it is necessary to obtain cheesecloth from the fibers, and the fibers in this cheesecloth should be bonded to each other by various methods and the finishing of the bonded fibers can be fixed. There are various methods applied in the nonwoven production process.

Usage Areas of Nonwoven Textiles

The most used fibers in the nonwovens industry are polypropylene, polyester, and cellulosic fibers, respectively. These fibers make up 83% of the fibers used in the nonwovens industry. In addition, a factory was used in Australia where wool is used in the production of nonwovens. Although wool is not used in non-woven textiles globally, these new niche markets are an innovative example of fiber in research.

Types of Fiber Used in Non-Woven Textiles

According to the EDANA classification, the production technologies of non-woven textiles are divided into three groups. These groups are:


1. Dry Processes (Drying)

  1. Scanning (Carding)
  2. Airlaid
  3. Vertical Laying (Perpendicularlaid)

2. Water Processes Polymer Melt Spill Operations (Spunlaid)

  1. Endless Fiber Processes (Spunbonded)
  2. Meltblowing Processes (Meltblown)
  3. Instant Texture Creating Processes (Flash Spinning)
  4. Electrostatic Melt Processes (Electrostatic Melt Spinning)

The share of Endless Fiber Processes in non-woven textile (nonwoven) technologies is 24%. Endless fiber technology is integrated production in the process from removing resin to non-woven fabric, so unit cost is lower than other technologies. While the total world market increased by 10% annually to 1.1 million tons, the growth in polyester endless fiber increased more than twice that of polypropylene. However, polypropylene fiber still has a 75% share in the market. Low raw material prices are the reason for the strong growth in polypropylene in the past. Polypropylene is currently preferred for diapers